About LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. |
The fluid flow calculations website. Software and consulting |

**Company Background and Software**

LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd., is located in Athens, Ohio (USA), and was formed in 1998. It is owned and operated by Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E., and Debbie Edwards, EIT. Our address and phone are 7860 Angel Ridge Rd., Athens, Ohio 45701, (740) 592-1890. Our e-mail address is LMNO@LMNOeng.com.

LMNO Engineering is a software development, consulting, and education firm. Our software goal is to have a website where practitioners, governments, educators, and students can find an organized collection of powerful, useful, yet easy to use programs. Our specialty is fluid flow of gases and liquids including pipes, culverts, weirs, flumes, orifices, nozzles, venturis, open channels, groundwater, and hydrology. We also have software for computing tank volume, unit conversions, and molecular weight. We have recorded videos of fluid mechanics experiments. Fluid flow encompasses the disciplines of civil, mechanical, chemical, environmental, nuclear, and hydrogeologic engineering; and science.

While visiting our website, you may notice that some of the calculations are partially disabled. These calculations will become fully enabled by paying a nominal fee. Purchases can be made on our registration page.

**Consulting Projects.** Resumes of the owners are shown below.

In addition to software development, LMNO Engineering provides consulting services. The following is a list of our consulting projects and the year that we worked on them. Due to confidentiality agreements, some projects are not listed in detail.

2001: Theoretical rating table and equation for extra large 60^{o} V-Trapezoidal Flume and comparisons to other investigations. Calculations and report.

2001: Effectiveness of pipe inside wall coatings on velocity and discharge. Calculations and report.

2002: Shelf load ratings. Calculations and report.

2002: Determine diameter variation and flow rate through an expanding tube for a liquid flowing in the laminar region. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2002: Determine critical depth, normal depth, and sequent depth in vicinity of hydraulic jump in 48-inch diameter pipe. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2002: Bypass loop calculations for density transducer. Calculations, Java program, and report.

2002: Reviewed FORTRAN program for bearing lubrication analysis.

2002: Determine surface area of asymmetric oblate ellipsoid. Equation development, spreadsheet, and report.

2002: Inflow to drain channel. Calculations and report.

2002: Culvert sizing. Report.

2003: Pipeline pressure testing analysis. Report.

2003: Gas mixture properties and flowrates. Calculations and report.

2003: Pipe network analysis for water cannons. Calculations and report.

2003: Flow meter calculation. Checked client's method.

2003: Bullet tank volume spreadsheet. Checked client's method.

2003: Drainage block evaluation. Report.

2004: Discharge coefficient determination for spraying. Spreadsheet.

2004: Decantation launder design (design of open channels with uniform inflow). Calculations and report.

2004: Piston engine analysis. Calculations and report.

2004: Development of software for controlled injection through orifices. Equation development, computer program, and report.

2004: Pressure calculations for acoustic diffuser. Equation development and report.

2004: High viscosity flow from caulking gun. Equation development, spreadsheet, and report.

2004: Ice rink heat transfer calculations. Equation development and report.

2004: Siphon pipeline analysis. Calculations and report.

2004: Wastewater treatment plant pipe sizing. Calculations and report.

2004: Swimming pool gutter flow rate predictions. Calculations and report.

2004: Orifice coefficients at low Reynolds numbers. Spreadsheet.

2004: Expert witness. Wastewater discharge. Report.

2005: Determination of peak discharge for sub-basins in Colorado. Calculations and report.

2005: Natural gas pipeline design. Shelf load rating analyses.

2005: Orifice and nozzle as alternatives to venturi injectors. Calculations and report.

2005: Discharge from overflow pipe. Calculations and report.

2005: Blood flow through heart. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2005: Water flow to be drained by partially full circular pipe. Calculations and report.

2005: Forces on pipe sled on river in Texas. Calculations and report.

2005: Flowrate and forces in a tapped pipe. Calculations and report.

2005: Evaluation of pressure relief valves.

2005: Pressure drop through 24-inch diameter pivoting pipe. Equation development, spreadsheet, and report.

2005: Flow through a pressurized hose. Calculations and report.

2005: Culvert flow. Calculations and report.

2005: Silo volume and weight. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2005: Flowrate, pressure, temperature, diameter, and force relationships for gas flow through a piezovalve. Equation development, spreadsheet, and report.

2005: Head loss through manhole outlet features. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2005: Siphoning water over a dam. Experiments, calculations, and report.

2005: Discharge from a clarifier. Calculations and report.

2006: Discharge through various size butterfly valves with various upstream depths. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2006: Parshall Flume rating table. Spreadsheet.

2006: Depth and flow rate of trench drains. Spreadsheet.

2006: Effect of air resistance on water jet. Spreadsheet.

2006: System curve and pump curve for sump. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2006: Compound weir depth versus flowrate rating curve. Calculations and report.

2006: Culvert flow. Calculations and report.

2006: Hydraulics and hydrology calculations for a subdivision in Oregon. Calculations and report.

2006: Shear and normal forces on retaining block wall. Equation development and report.

2006: Hydraulic system diameter and contact area computations. Equation development and report.

2006: Water flow analysis in flooded basement. Calculations and report.

2006: Water jets in oral surgery. Equations and report.

2006: Diameter, rating curve, and guidelines for manufacture and installation of an orifice for steam flow measurement. Calculations, spreadsheet, and report.

2006: Effectiveness of dual inlet for increasing pressure at a blower. Spreadsheet.

2006: Unsteady flow of gas out of a tank. Equation development, spreadsheet, and report.

2006: Open channel flow of liquid ammonia in a piping system. Calculations and report.

2006: Flow of liquid in small bore orifice with corner taps. Spreadsheet.

2006: Rotating cylinder viscometer. Equation development.

2006: Peak discharge and detention volume for a development. Calculations and report.

2006: Detention basin orifice sizing. Calculations and report.

2006: Maximum discharge through pipe arch culvert under inlet control. Calculations and report.

2006: Peak discharge, detention volume, and orifice sizing for a subdivision. Calculations and report.

2006: Peak discharge, detention volume, and orifice sizing for another subdivision. Calculations and report.

2006: Runoff calculations for a stormwater pollution prevention facility. Calculations and report.

2007: Fire hydrant flows and pressures. Calculations and report.

2007: V-notch weir rating table and design. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2007: High viscosity flow modeling of impact absorbing crash cushion. Equation development, spreadsheet, and report.

2007: Review of HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS modeling. Report.

2007: Air evacuation calculations. Equation development and report.

2007: Expert witness. Open channel flow modeling with HEC-RAS. Report and deposition.

2007: Flow through three horizontal 4-ft diameter CMP culverts. Calculations and report.

2007: Orifice sizing for gas flow. Calculations and report.

2007: Volume of liquid versus depth in inclined cylindrical tank, beveled tank, and V-tank. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2007: Hydrologic and hydraulic analysis for floodway development in Gallia County, Ohio.

2008: Orifice sizing to obtain desired vena-contracta pressure. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2008: EPANET modeling of a water distribution system in Iraq. Computer analysis.

2008: V-notch weir sizing and installation guidance. Calculations.

2008: Pressure loss and heat transfer through small ducts of various shapes. Report.

2008: Gas pressure drop through tubing. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2008: Choked flow of gas out of a pressurized tank through piping and elbows. Equation development.

2008: Modeling monoethylene glycol in an open channel/pressurized flow piping system. Calculations and report.

2008: Water depth profile in a culvert. HEC-RAS modeling and report.

2009: Re-circulation pumping of water in an open channel. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2009: Low temperature thermal cracking of asphalt binders for roads.

2009: Water flow over 120^{o} compound weir. Equation development.

2009: Gasoline pumping power and net positive suction head computations. Computer simulations.

2009: Flow rate and losses through back-to-back grilles in a clean room. Equation development.

2009: Determine valve flow coefficient from flow and pressure drop data. Equation development.

2009: Siphon water from pond through pipe. Equation development and computer simulation.

2009: Gas pipeline pressure drop. Computer simulations.

2009: Boat water volume displaced and center of gravity. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2009: Diameter, pressure, flow, and "throw" of air from duct. Equation development.

2009: Nitrogen temperature, pressure, and velocity changes in small tube under choking conditions. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2010: Groundwater gradient and flow direction. Calculations.

2010: Temperature, pressure, and velocity variation in air diffuser. Equation development.

2010: Viscosity blending calculations (methanol, ethanol, water) and pressure drop calculations. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2010: Liquid flow through small diameter needles and tapered needles. Equation development and spreadsheet.

2010: Liquid pressure loss through spirally wound tubing. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2010: Steam generation calculations.

2010: Drag on a neutrally buoyant sphere due to a gas and liquid flowing upward in vertical pipe. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2010: Culvert flow. Equation development, computer simulations, and report.

2010: Choked flow of steam out of an orifice. Equations and spreadsheet.

2010: Pressures due to flow of enzymes in feed mill. Calculations and report.

2010: Pressure losses in a oil well drill string. Equations and spreadsheet.

2010: Flow over multiple rectangular weirs. Equations and spreadsheet.

2010: Flow and pressure losses in a venturi. Equations and spreadsheet.

2011: Choked air flow. Calculations and report.

2011: Pressure and flow into a pipe due to natural circulation. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2011: Culvert critical flow. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2011: Flow through an open channel heat exchanger. Calculations.

2011: Culvert flow. Spreadsheet.

2011: Air flow in a pipe network. Modeling and report.

2011: Expert witness. Pressure changes in internal flow due to gravity. Report.

2011: Flow rate and pressure drop for grouting a well. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2011: Water flow through a network of pipes discharging over a weir. EPANET modeling and report.

2011: Low Reynolds number flow of oil through a nozzle. Equations.

2011: Impact of temperature change on volume measurement in a petroleum storage tank. Report.

2011: Heat transfer in ponds and waterfalls. Equations and calculations.

2011: Pressure drop and flow through a spring check valve.

2011: Floodplain analysis and impact of bridges.

2012: V-notch weir design and installation recommendations. Report.

2012: Trapezoidal flume equation unit conversions. Report.

2012: Relief valve test verification.

2012: Velocity comparisons in sewer pipes. Spreadsheet.

2012: Horizontal cylinder volume compuations. Spreadsheet.

2012: Flooding analysis. Report.

2012: Water hammer analysis. Calculations.

2012: Heat transfer augmentation in piping. Calculations.

2012: Inverted siphon analysis and design. Report.

2012: Gas flow calculations using Weymouth equation. Report.

2012: Inclined cylinder volume in tank as a function of measured depth. Spreadsheet.

2013: Pump system and pump curves. Spreadsheet.

2013: Siphon flow. Spreadsheet.

2013: Discharge from a clarifier. Spreadsheet.

2013: Friction testing of a roof-mounted solar photovoltaic array.

2013: Pipe flow network design. Report and spreadsheet.

2013: Culvert discharges at various Froude numbers.

2013: Expert witness. Fluid mechanics. Report.

2013: Groundwater flow into a parking garage. Report.

2013: Detention volume calculations. Report.

2014: Peak runoff analysis using Rational equation. Report.

2014: Bearing leakage rate calculations. Spreadsheet.

2014: Derivation of velocity versus distance upstream of a submerged orifice. Calculations.

2014: Fire hydrant flow analysis. Report.

2014: Oil skimming calculations.

2014: Analysis of Hazen-Williams Coefficients for smooth surfaces. Report.

2014: Compressible gas flow through an injector. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2015: Open channel flow in zero depth entry pool. Calculations and spreadsheet.

2015: Heat transfer in twisted pipe. Report.

2015: Stream channel riprap literature review. Report.

2015: Rating chart for horizontal tank with conical ends.

2016: Inverted siphon design. Report, computer program, spreadsheet.

2016: Inclined tank rating charts for partially full liquid in a tank.

2016: Hydrology modeling, flooding, and culvert flow. Report and spreadsheet.

2016: Culvert velocities and Froude numbers chart.

2016: Liquid and gas trajectory modeling. Report and spreadsheet.

2016: Water distribution system modeling using EPANET. Report.

2016: Lake level drop prediction with time due to partial removal of dam. Report.

2016: Forces on a drilling tool subject to water flow in a well. Report.

2016: Forces on a rotating disk. Report and spreadsheet.

2016: Manifold flow. Report and computer program.

2016: Gas flow through a fluidized bed. Report and spreadsheet.

**Resumes**

**Ken Edwards**, Ph.D., P.E. (licensed Professional Engineer in Ohio)

Ph.D. Civil (Environmental) Engineering. Iowa State University. Ames, Iowa. 1993.

M.S.E. (Civil Engineering). Southern Methodist University. Dallas, Texas. 1989.

B.S.N.E. (Nuclear Engineering). Purdue University. W. Lafayette, Indiana. 1986.

Owner. LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. Athens, Ohio. 1998-present.

Fluid flow specialist. Consulting and software development.

Senior Instructor. Norwich University. Northfield, Vermont. 2013-present.

Teach CE 555 Geoenvironmental Engineering: Groundwater Flow and Waste Containment.

Adjunct Professor. Columbia Southern University. Orange Beach, Alabama. 2010-present.

Teach undergraduate and graduate classes in solid waste, hazardous waste, air pollution control, and pollution prevention.

Adjunct Faculty in Mechanical Engineering. Ohio University. Athens, Ohio. 2012, 2013, 2016.

Taught ME 3121 Heat and Fluid Transport I.

Adjunct Professor. Warren-National University. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 1998-2008.

Taught and developed undergraduate and graduate courses in fluid mechanics, hydraulics, hydrology, environmental science, environmental engineering, radiation theory, statics, and strength of materials. Reviewed undergraduate and graduate theses. Advised student course selections.

Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering. Ohio University. Athens, Ohio. 1993-2000

Taught undergraduate and graduate courses in fluid mechanics, hydraulics, environmental engineering, groundwater remediation, water treatment, wastewater treatment, statics, and mechanics of materials.

Directed research grants related to soil, river, and aquifer restoration.

Project Engineer. Trinity Consultants, Inc. Dallas, Texas. 1990.

Air pollution modeling using ISCST (Industrial Source Complex Short-Term), ISCLT (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), and SCREEN (screening model). Report writing.

Nuclear Intern. Public Service Electric and Gas Co. Salem and Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plants. Salem County, New Jersey. 1982-1985 (5 semesters; co-op position).

Maintenance, Operations, Thermal-Hydraulics, and Reactor Physics departments.

Has reviewed articles for the Journal of Environmental Engineering (ASCE), Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (ASCE), and Soil Science Society of America Journal. ASCE is American Society of Civil Engineers.

*Presentations and publications (selected):*

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics: Fluid Statics and Pressurized Pipe Flow. Presentation on behalf of HalfMoon Continuing Education. Worthington, OH, March 3, 2011; Pittsburgh, PA, July 15, 2011; Fort Washington, PA, Nov. 2, 2011; Somerset, NJ, Nov. 3, 2011; Nanuet, NY, Nov. 4, 2011.

Surface Water Hydrology and Groundwater Hydrology. Presentations for the Topics in Hydrological Engineering seminar on behalf of HalfMoon Continuing Education. Cincinnati, Ohio. June 10, 2010.

Exploring the Behavior of Groundwater and Hydrogeologic Problems and Solutions. Presentations for the Hydrogeologic Fundamentals for Architects, Engineers, and Contractors seminar on behalf of HalfMoon LLC Continuing Education. Middleburg Heights, Ohio. Jan. 30, 2009.

Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting, American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. St. Louis, Missouri, May 17-22, 1998, pp. 73-76. (with M.S. Stoertz and D. C. Turney)

The principal origin of lake acidity: Underground mines, minespoil, or buried gob? International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation, and Environment. 1997. v. 11(3). pp. 139-144. (with D. C. Turney)

Venting test analysis using Jacob's approximation. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE. 1996. v. 122 (3), pp. 232-234.

Air permeability from pneumatic tests in oxidized till. Journal of Environmental Engineering, ASCE. 1994. v. 120, pp. 329-347. (with L. C. Jones)

Modeling pumping tests in weathered glacial till. Journal of Hydrology. 1993. v. 150, pp. 41-60. (with L. C. Jones)

Estimating aquifer parameters from a horizontal well pumping test in an unconfined aquifer. Water Resources Bulletin. 1991. v. 27, pp. 831-839.

*Continuing education:*

Alternative Transportation in Central Ohio. April 11, 2017. Columbus, Ohio. ASCE Central Ohio Section.

Learn to SWMM. U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model. Storm water and wastewater system design. Sept. 26-27, 2016. Henderson, Nevada. ASCE.

City of Athens Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades Tour. April 21, 2016. Athens, Ohio. ASCE Central Ohio Section.

Water Quality Seminar. April 20, 2016. Columbus, Ohio. ASCE Central Ohio Section.

Storm Water Pond Inflows, Routing and Outlet Structure Design; and Tour of Hoover Dam. Sept. 21-23, 2015. Las Vegas, Nevada. ASCE.

Variable Frequency Drives. February 20-21, 2014. American Trainco. Columbus, Ohio.

Chemical Hygiene Training and Bloodborne Pathogen Training. February 14, 2014. Dept. of Risk Management and Safety. Ohio University. Athens, Ohio.

World Environment & Water Resources Congress 2013. ASCE EWRI (Environmental and Water Resources Institute). May 19-20, 2013. Cincinnati, Ohio.

Real-time tools for managing water distribution system hydraulics and water quality using EPANET-RTX. May 19, 2013. Workshop at ASCE EWRI (Environmental and Water Resources Institute) World Environment & Water Resources Congress 2013. Cincinnati, Ohio.

Legal and Environmental Issues in Natural Gas Production. October 30, 2012. Worthington, Ohio. HalfMoon Continuing Education.

Retaining Wall Design and Slope Stabilization Techniques. March 12, 2012. Cincinnati, Ohio. HalfMoon Continuing Education.

Geothermal Heating and Cooling: Technology and Applications. October 12, 2011. Cincinnati, Ohio. HalfMoon Continuing Education.

Low Impact Development and LEED - Ohio Balanced Growth Program. Watershed Plans and Best Practices for Local Governments. April 19, 2011. Columbus, Ohio. ASCE Central Ohio section.

Pipe Selection for Municipal Facilities. Dec. 9-10, 2010. Sacramento, California. ASCE.

Pumping Systems Design for Civil Engineers. Sept. 10-11, 2009. Cincinnati, Ohio. ASCE.

Transportation Research Board. 88th Annual Meeting. Washington DC. Marriott Wardman Park Hotel. Attended Jan. 11-13, 2009 committee meeting AFB-60 Hydrology, Hydraulics, and Water Quality, AFK-20 Characteristics of Bituminous Materials, and Session #296 Older Person Driving Research.

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Design. May 5-8, 2008. Orlando, Florida. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Understanding and Troubleshooting Hydraulics. Aug. 13, 2007. Charleston, West Virginia. American Trainco.

HEC-HMS Computer Workshop. May 3-4, 2007. Cincinnati, Ohio. ASCE.

Water Hammer in Transmission and Distribution Systems. Sept. 21-22, 2006. Colorado Springs, Colorado. ASCE.

HEC-RAS Computer Workshop (Steady Flow Applications). Sept. 14-16, 2005. Cincinnati, Ohio. ASCE.

HEC-RAS Computer Workshop for Unsteady Flow Applications. Dec. 1-3, 2004. Indianapolis, Indianapolis. ASCE.

Design of Stormwater Management Systems. June 3-4, 2003. Columbus, Ohio. Water Resources Learning Center.

*Member:* American Geophysical Union, American Society of Civil Engineers

**Debbie Edwards**

M.S.N.E. (Nuclear Engineering). Purdue University. W. Lafayette, Indiana. 1987.

B.S.N.E. Purdue University. W. Lafayette, Indiana. 1985.

Owner. LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. Athens, Ohio. 1998-present.

Engineer and Numerical Methods Specialist.

Nuclear Reactor Engineer. Texas Utilities, Inc. Dallas, Texas. 1987-90.

Developed numerical models of nuclear reactor physics.

Nuclear Reactor Engineer. Westinghouse Electric Co. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1985.

Developed numerical models of nuclear reactor physics.

**© 1998-2017 LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. All rights reserved.**

**LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.**

7860 Angel Ridge Rd. Athens, Ohio 45701 USA (740) 592-1890

LMNO@LMNOeng.com http://www.LMNOeng.com