LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.

The fluid flow calculations website

Flow in pipes, ducts, open channels, culverts, hydrology, groundwater. Liquid, gas, water, air. Venturi, nozzle, orifice flow meters. Weirs, flumes. Pipe networks, water hammer. Bernoulli, Manning, Moody. Culvert design, inverted siphon. Pressure drop, pressure loss, flow, discharge, sizing. Pressure relief valve. Drag force. Tank volume, pipe volume, unit conversions.

Greetings! I am Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E., and owner of LMNO Engineering. My e-mail is LMNO@LMNOeng.com and phone is (740) 707-2614. Don't have e-mail? You can still send a message.  In addition to software, we provide consulting services.

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August 24, 2023: New newsletter about computing riprap rock size


Open Channels / Culverts
Manning Equation Detailed Calculators:
+Circular culvert
+Trapezoidal channel
+Rectangular channel

Simple Manning calculators:
Simple Manning calculator
Circular culvert geometry
Non-circular channel geometry
Mannings n Coefficients
Q = VA

Specialty Programs:
+Culvert design using inlet and outlet control (graph, chart)
+Gradually varied flow (M1, M2, S2, S3) graph and table
+Inverted siphon for sewer going under river
+Hydraulic jump in a pipe
+Hydraulic jump horizontal rectangular channel
+Critical depth in circular culvert
+Bernoulli (pitot tube, dam, sluice gate)
+Discharge from a tank (steady state)
+Time to empty tank

+Parshall (submerged and free flow) graph, table
+Trapezoidal, rectangular, U (Palmer), Parshall (free flow) graph, chart

V notch

Compute Waterfall Discharge at Channel Drop-Off (End Depth):
+Circular culvert
Rectangular channel
Triangular channel

Drag Force
+Drag force on hemispheres, cone, ellipsoid, annular disk, cylinder, rod, cube
+Drag force - you enter drag coefficient

+Riprap rock sizing

Pressurized Conduits
Single pipes and tubes:
+Liquid or gas pipe (Darcy-Weisbach)
+Liquid or gas pipe & pump curve (Darcy-Weisbach)
+Water pipe (Hazen-Williams)
+Water pipe & pump curve (Hazen-Williams)

Compressible (gases):
+Weymouth, Panhandle A (and B) equations (compressible gases)
+Choked flow of gas from tank through pipe
+Gas leak rate through hole
+Rayleigh flow (compressible with heat transfer but frictionless)

Specialty Programs:
+Bernoulli (pitot tube, pipe leak, pipe expansion/contraction)
+Bypass loop
+Discharge from a tank (steady state)
+Fire hydrant
+Force due to pipe bend
+Liquid leak rate from pipe crack
+Pipe network (12 pipes)
+Pressure relief valve sizing
+Time to empty tank
+Water hammer (enter valve close or opening time)
+Water hammer (instantaneous valve closure)

Venturi, Nozzle, and Orifice Flow meters (D is pipe diameter):
+Venturi (liquids)
+Nozzle (liquids)
+Orifice (liquids, D<5cm)
+Orifice (liquids, D≥5cm)
+Orifice (gases, D<5cm)
+Orifice (gases, D≥5cm)

Properties of Gases:
+Specific gravity conversions and density using ideal gas law
+Gas flow conversions (mass, standard, actual)
Molecular weight
Gas viscosity

Simple Programs:
Non-circular to circular pipe conversions
Energy (Bernoulli) equation
Pressure drop in horizontal pipe (laminar flow)
Pressure loss in horizontal pipe (4000≤Re≤105)
Static pressure from column height
Minor losses (valves, etc.)
Convert discharge coefficient to minor loss coefficient
Q = VA
Major losses (pipe friction). Darcy-Weisbach
Major losses (pipe friction). Hazen-Williams
Surface roughness and minor loss coefficients
Moody friction factor for Darcy-Weisbach
Equivalent length of pipe calculator

Hydrology and Groundwater
+TR-55 peak discharge
+TR-55 detention basin storage
+Time of concentration
Rational equation for peak discharge
+Water Quality Volume

+Porous bed (packed bed, permeameter)
+Hydraulic gradient and flow direction from x, y, head data
+3-D slug (pulse) injection: advection, dispersion
+1-D step injection: advection, disp, retardation
+ Drawdown for unsteady groundwater flow to a pumping well in a confined aquifer (Theis Well function calculator)
Aquifer transmissivity T=Kb (and K table)

+Volume of liquid in inclined cylinder at 0 to 90 degrees (graph, table)
+Volume of partially full cylinder on its side, sphere, cone
Unit conversions
Fluid properties
+Ideal gas law for density
Molecular weight
Gas viscosity
Discussion and references for pipes, culverts

Videos / Movies
Friction loss and analysis
Tank discharge and analysis

(Fluid flow articles written by Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E., Owner of LMNO Engineering)
1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006 - 2012  2013 - 2019  2020 - 2023

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© 1998-2023 LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.  All rights reserved.

LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.
7860 Angel Ridge Rd.   Athens, Ohio  45701   USA   (740) 707-2614
LMNO@LMNOeng.com    https://www.LMNOeng.com