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The **Shekel function** or also **Shekel's foxholes** is a multidimensional, multimodal, continuous, deterministic function commonly used as a test function for testing optimization techniques.^{[1]}

The mathematical form of a function in dimensions with maxima is:

or, similarly,

Numerically certified global minima and the corresponding solutions were obtained using interval methods for up to .^{[2]}

**^**Molga, M.; Smutnicki, C. (2005). "Test functions for optimization needs. Test functions for optimization needs" (PDF).*Test Functions for Optimization Needs*.**101**: 48.**^**Vanaret C. (2015) Hybridization of interval methods and evolutionary algorithms for solving difficult optimization problems. PhD thesis. Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France.

Shekel, J. 1971. "Test Functions for Multimodal Search Techniques." *Fifth Annual Princeton Conference on Information Science and Systems*.