LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.

The fluid flow calculations website
www.LMNOeng.com

Flow in pipes, ducts, open channels, culverts, hydrology, groundwater. Liquid, gas, water, air. Venturi, nozzle, orifice flow meters. Weirs, flumes. Pipe networks, water hammer. Bernoulli, Manning, Moody. Culvert design, inverted siphon. Pressure, flow, discharge, sizing. Drag force. Tank volume, pipe volume, unit conversions.
Consulting and software: Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E. LMNO@LMNOeng.com (740) 5921890 Athens, Ohio USA. Or use form.
CALCULATORS
Open Channels / Culverts
Manning Equation Detailed Calculators:
+Circular culvert
+Trapezoidal channel
+Rectangular channel
Simple Manning calculators:
•Simple Manning calculator
•Circular culvert geometry
•Noncircular channel geometry
•Mannings n Coefficients
•Q = VA
Specialty Programs:
+Culvert design using inlet and outlet control (graph, chart)
+Gradually varied flow (M1, M2, S2, S3) graph and table
+Inverted siphon for sewer going under river
+Hydraulic jump
+Critical depth in circular culvert
+Bernoulli (pitot tube, dam, sluice gate)
+Discharge from a tank (steady state)
+Time to empty tank
Flumes:
+Parshall (submerged and free flow) graph, table
+Trapezoidal, rectangular, U (Palmer), Parshall (free flow) graph, chart
Weirs:
+Rectangular
•V notch
•Cipoletti
Compute Waterfall Discharge at Channel DropOff (End Depth):
+Circular culvert
•Rectangular channel
•Triangular channel
Drag Force
+Drag force on hemispheres, cone, ellipsoid, annular disk, cylinder, rod, cube
+Drag force  you enter drag coefficient

Pressurized Conduits
Single pipes and tubes:
+Liquid or gas pipe (DarcyWeisbach)
+Liquid or gas pipe & pump curve (DarcyWeisbach)
+Water pipe (HazenWilliams)
+Water pipe & pump curve (HazenWilliams)
+Weymouth, Panhandle A (and B) equations (compressible gases)
+Choked flow of gas from tank through pipe
+Rayleigh flow (compressible with heat transfer but frictionless)
Specialty Programs:
+Discharge from a tank (steady state)
+Time to empty tank
+Pipe network (12 pipes)
+Bypass loop
+Force due to pipe bend
+Bernoulli (pitot tube, pipe leak, pipe expansion/contraction)
+Water hammer (enter valve close or opening time)
+Water hammer (instantaneous valve closure)
Venturi, Nozzle, and Orifice Flow meters (D is pipe diameter):
+Venturi (liquids)
+Nozzle (liquids)
+Orifice (liquids, D<5cm)
+Orifice (liquids, D≥5cm)
+Orifice (gases, D<5cm)
+Orifice (gases, D≥5cm)
Properties of Gases:
+Specific gravity conversions and density using ideal gas law
+Gas flow conversions (mass, standard, actual)
•Molecular weight
•Gas viscosity
Simple Programs:
•Noncircular to circular pipe conversions
•Energy (Bernoulli) equation
•Pressure drop in horizontal pipe (laminar flow)
•Pressure loss in horizontal pipe (4000≤Re≤10^{5})
•Static pressure from column height
•Minor losses (valves, etc.)
•Convert discharge coefficient to minor loss coefficient
•Q = VA
•Major losses (pipe friction). DarcyWeisbach
•Major losses (pipe friction). HazenWilliams
•Surface roughness and minor loss coefficients
•Moody friction factor for DarcyWeisbach
•Equivalent length of pipe calculator

Hydrology and Groundwater
Hydrology:
+TR55 peak discharge
+TR55 detention basin storage
+Time of concentration
•Rational equation for peak discharge
Groundwater:
+Porous bed (packed bed, permeameter)
+Hydraulic gradient and flow direction from x, y, head data
+3D slug (pulse) injection: advection, dispersion
+1D step injection: advection, disp, retardation

Miscellaneous
+Volume of liquid in inclined cylinder at 0 to 90 degrees (graph, table)
+Volume of partially full cylinder on its side, sphere, cone
•Unit conversions
•Fluid properties
+Ideal gas law for density
•Molecular weight
•Gas viscosity
•Discussion and references for pipes, culverts
Videos / Movies
•Friction loss and analysis
•Tank discharge and analysis

Newsletters
(Fluid flow articles written by Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E., Owner of LMNO Engineering)
1999 2000
2001 2002
2003 2004
2005 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012
2013, 2014, 2015, 2016

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Flow
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Hydrology
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RainfallMaps
Statics
Videos
Volume
Waterfall
Water Hammer
Weirs
June 18, 2017: Revised home page.
© 19982017 LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd. All rights reserved.
LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.
7860 Angel Ridge Rd. Athens, Ohio 45701 USA (740) 5921890
LMNO@LMNOeng.com https://www.LMNOeng.com