Leq is the length of pipe with diameter (D) and friction factor (f) having the same energy loss as a fitting (valve, elbow,etc.) with minor loss coefficient (K).
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Equation (from the references listed under Discussion and References for Closed Conduit Flow):
f and K are unit-less. D and Leq have the same units. For instance: If D is in meters, then Leq is in meters. If D is in inches, then Leq is in inches. If D is in ft, then Leq is in ft.
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(modified January 10, 2013 - added text discussing units for f, K, D, and Leq)