LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.

The fluid flow calculations website

Flow in pipes, open channels, hydrology, groundwater. Liquid, gas, water, air. Venturi, nozzle, orifice flowmeters. Weirs, flumes. Pipe networks, water hammer. Bernoulli, Manning, Moody. Culvert design, inverted siphon. Pressure, flow, discharge, sizing. Drag force. Tank volume, pipe volume, unit conversions.

Greetings! I am Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E., and owner of LMNO Engineering. My e-mail is LMNO@LMNOeng.com and phone is (740) 592-1890. Don't have e-mail? You can still send a message.  In addition to software, we provide consulting services.

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Red Dot () calculations are free. Red Caret calculations (^) use Java and do not run on some computers and most mobile devices.

July 3, 2015 - We slightly changed the look of the website.


  Open Channels/Culverts
  Manning equation detailed calculators:
Circular Culvert  Trapezoidal Channel 
^Rectangular Channel

  Simple Manning calculators:
Simple Manning calculator  Circular culvert geometry
Non-circular channel geometry  Mannings n Coefficients
Q = VA

  Specialty programs:
^Culvert Design using Inlet and Outlet Control
^Gradually varied flow (M1, M2, S2, S3) graph
Inverted siphon for sewer going under river
Hydraulic jump   Critical Depth in Circular Culvert
Bernoulli (pitot tube, dam, sluice gate)
Discharge from a Tank (steady state)   Time to Empty Tank

^Parshall (submerged and free flow) 
^Trapezoidal, Rectangular, U (Palmer), Parshall (free flow)

  Weirs:  Rectangular   V Notch     Cipoletti

  Compute waterfall discharge at channel drop-off (end depth):
 Circular culvert 
Rectangular channel   Triangular channel

Drag Force
^Drag Force on hemispheres, cone, ellipsoid, annular disk, cylinder, rod, cube
Drag Force - you enter drag coefficient

Pressurized Conduits

  Single pipes and tubes:
 Liquid or gas pipe (Darcy-Weisbach)
^Liquid or gas pipe & pump curve (Darcy-Weisbach)
 Water pipe (Hazen-Williams)
^Water pipe & pump curve (Hazen-Williams)
^Weymouth, Panhandle A (and B) equations (compressible gases)
^Choked flow of gas from tank through pipe
 Rayleigh flow (compressible with heat transfer but frictionless)

  Specialty programs:
Discharge from a Tank (steady state)   Time to Empty Tank
^Pipe network (12 pipes)   ^Bypass Loop   Force due to Pipe Bend
Bernoulli (pitot tube, pipe leak, pipe expansion/contraction)
Water Hammer (enter valve close or opening time) 
Water Hammer (instantaneous valve closure)

  Venturi, Nozzle, and Orifice Flow meters:
Venturi (liquids)   Nozzle (liquids)
Orifice (liquids, D<5cm)  Orifice (liquids, D>5cm)
Orifice (gases, D<5cm)   Orifice (gases, D≥5cm) 
  (D is pipe diameter)

  Properties of gases:
Specific gravity conversions and Density using ideal gas law 
Gas flow conversions (mass, standard, actual)
Molecular Weight     Gas Viscosity

  Simple programs:
Non-Circular to Circular Pipe Conversions
Energy (Bernoulli) Equation  Static Pressure from Column Height
Minor Losses (valves, etc.)    Q = VA 
Major Losses (pipe friction). Darcy-Weisbach
Major Losses (pipe friction). Hazen-Williams
Surface Roughness and Minor Loss Coefficients
Moody Friction Factor for Darcy-Weisbach 
Equivalent Length of Pipe Calculations

Hydrology and Groundwater
 TR-55 Peak discharge
^TR-55 Detention basin storage
 Time of concentration
Rational equation for peak discharge

^Porous bed (packed bed, permeameter)
^Hydraulic gradient and flow direction from x, y, head data
^3-D Slug injection: advection, dispersion
^1-D Step injection: advection, disp, retardation


Volume of liquid in inclined cylinder at 0 to 90 degrees
Volume of partially full cylinder on its side, Sphere, Cone
Unit Conversions 
  Fluid Properties  Ideal gas law for density 
Molecular Weight     Gas Viscosity
  Discussion and references for pipes, culverts

Videos / Movies
  Friction loss and analysis
  Tank discharge and analysis

(Fluid flow articles written by Ken Edwards, Ph.D., P.E., Owner of LMNO Engineering)
1999  2000  2001  2002  2003  2004  2005  2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012  2013

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© 1998-2015 LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.  All rights reserved.

LMNO Engineering, Research, and Software, Ltd.
7860 Angel Ridge Rd.   Athens, Ohio  45701   USA   (740) 592-1890
LMNO@LMNOeng.com    http://www.LMNOeng.com

Site updated July 3, 2015. Inserted red caret (^) next to Java calculations. New photo.